Nurses on the front-line
It wasn't until Dr. Jonas
Salk's vaccine was perfected in 1954 that poliomyelitis was virtually eradicated
from the western world. Before that it was a terrifying and dreaded disease
that seemed to come out of nowhere to attack children. An early epidemic
in 1927/1928 led to the establishment of a polio hospital in Edmonton, but
Alberta was still one of the hardest hit provinces in the 1935 epidemic.
Doreen Olmsted who
was nursing in Saskatchewan explains: I was working on the neurology
ward then. They came to us, and it was absolutely horrible. I remember
people coming in, babies, some of the dying. We really weren't prepared
at all. The wards weren't set up properly. Instead of having them together
in a room, they were all separated. There were a lot of private rooms
there. The iron lungs were being used, the old iron lungs, all that stuff.
That was scary. There were some very sad cases there.
The mechanical device
that came to be known as the iron lung wasn't invented until 1930 and not
widely used until seven or eight years later. When chest paralysis occurred,
the iron lung breathed for the patient, very often a young one, either by
use of a motor or a hand pump system. The main problem in the beginning was
getting the huge piece of equipment manufactured (and paid for) when an epidemic
suddenly required many of them at once.
During the last epidemic
in Alberta (1953-1954), nurses found themselves learning how
to use the machine. It created a lot of heavy work for them as it involved
complete body care and hygiene for immobilized patients. Caring for these
patients also meant exposing themselves to the disease. Another
problem that came up during the use of all these life-saving machines was that
they ran on electricity--power failures were a nightmare for the patients and
the hospital staff. Since the iron lungs had to be operated manually in an
emergency, the nurses were generally told to run to the polio ward if the lights
Approximately fourteen hundred
people were affected by polio in Alberta, including the nurses who contracted
the disease while looking after their young patients. The residual effects
are still being felt today, fifty years after recovery. Post-polio syndrome,
involving muscle weakness and joint pain, has become widely known.
Jean Shafto remembers
that polio patients were brought in to the Banff Hospital: Then we had
polio patients, because in the early '50s when the polio epidemic came,
they had mineral spring waters there and a physiotherapy department,
and we had an iron lung.